EDUPRENEUR DALAM MENINGKATKAN MUTU LULUSAN SMK

 

 

 

ABSTRAK

 

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa mutu lulusan SMK (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan) di dunia kerja. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah diskriptif dengan menganalisa data lulusan SMK. SMK adalah suatu pendidikan yang mempersiapkan siswa-siswinya untuk siap terjun dalam dunia kerja sesuai bidang yang dipelajarinya.  Didirikannya SMK bertujuan untuk mempersiapkan lulusan SMK untuk bekerja sesuai keahliannya dan mengembangkan keprofesionalitasan. SMK juga bertujuan untuk menciptakan lulusan yang mampu berdaya saing dan wirausahawan yang produktif, adaptif dan kreatif. Dalam mendukung lulusan SMK yang mampu berwirausaha, maka diberikanlah pendidikan kewirausahaan yang sejalan dengan kurikulum SMK. Pendidikan kewirausahaan ini diterapkan untuk membangun jiwa wirausaha para siswa SMK dan membantu para siswa SMK untuk mampu berwirausaha dan tidak lagi tergantung pada perusahaan tertentu untuk bekerja. Hasil analisis menunjukkan, pendidikan kewirausahaan yang dilaksanakan di sekolah dirasa masih kurang, sehingga banyak lulusan SMK yang belum mampu berwirausaha, atau mereka mampu berwirausaha setelah mereka bekerja beberapa tahun di suatu tempat usaha. Dari hasil analisis ini didapatkan beberapa usulan yaitu, pendidikan kewirausahaan di SMK lebih diperdalam atau diadakannya ekstrakurikuler kewirausahaan yang menunjang pendidikan kewirausahaan yang ada disekolah. Selain itu, diberikan tambahan pendidikan pemasaran, sehingga siswa mampu memasarkan usahanya dengan baik di masyarakat. Selain itu, peran guru juga berpengaruh terhadap kemandirian siswa, sehingga guru juga harus mendorong dan memotivasi siswa untuk dapat mandiri dan berwirausaha.

 

Kata Kunci           : SMK, wirausaha, daya saing, kesempatan kerja,

 

  1. PENDAHULUAN
  2. Latar Belakang

Populasi di Indonesia sangatlah tinggi saat ini, yaitu 255,993,674 (CIA World Factbook July 2015 est.). Banyaknya populasi Indonesia saat ini membuat persaingan dalam dunia kerja menjadi sangat ketat. Ketatnya persaingan didunia kerja di Indonesia membuat angka penggangguran di Indonesia tinggi, yaitu 7.244.905 (Table 1. BPS, 2014). Selain itu, angka kewirausahaan di Indonesia masih rendah, Indonesia berada pada 1,65% atau berada di urutan ke 68 dari 121 negara menurut The Global Entrepreneurship & Development Index 2013.

Dalam mengatasi angka pengguran yang tinggi dan meningkatkan angka kewirausahaan, pendidikan di Indonesia juga ambil bagian melalui SMK (Sekolah Menengah Atas). Melalui pendidikan di SMK para siswa dibekali dengan berbagai keterampilan sesuai dengan bidangnya. SMK pun memberikan pendidikan kewirausahaan yang sejalan dengan kompetensi yang ada. Pendidikan kewirausahaan ini bertujuan untuk melatih siswa-siswi SMK untuk memiliki jiwa wirausaha, sehingga nantinya mereka dapat membuat lapangan pekerjaan sendiri setelah lulus (Adi, 2011). Namun faktanya, masih banyak lulusan SMK yang belum mampu membangun usaha sendiri dan masih banyak lulusan SMK yang menganggur. Terlihat pada table 1, sebanyak 1.332.521 lulusan SMK menganggur. Menurut Suryamin, Kepala BPS dalam Kompas (2014) menyatakan bahwa angka pengangguran di tingkat SMK diakibatkan karena belum adanya link and match antara pendidikan SMK dengan permintaan industri.

Fakta empirik juga menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar lulusan SMK belum mampu memenuhi kebutuhan para pemangku kepentingan (Stakeholder) dan lulusan SMK cenderung menjadi para pencari kerja dan masih banyak yang belum mampu untuk berwirausaha untuk mengembangkan dan mengimplementasikan keahlian yang didapat di SMK (Subijanto, 2012). Oleh karena itu, pendidikan kewirausahaan dirasa penting untuk menciptakan lulusan SMK yang mampu berwirausaha dan berdaya saing. Dengan berwirausaha maka akan mengurangi jumlah angka pengangguran di Indonesia.  

 

  1. Rumusan Masalah

Berdasarkan uraian latar belakang tersebut, maka penulis merumuskan masalah sebagai berikut:

  1. Bagaimana mutu lulusan SMK dalam dunia kerja?
  2. Seberapa siap lulusan SMK untuk berwirausaha?
  3. Bagaimana meningkatkan jiwa kewirausahaan lulusan SMK melalui edupreneur atau pendidikan kewirausahaan?

 

  1. Tujuan

Tujuan dalam analisis ini adalah:

  1. Mengetahui mutu lulusan SMK didunia kerja
  2. Mengetahui kesiapan lulusan SMK untuk berwirausaha
  3. Mengetahui cara untuk meningkatkan jiwa kewirausahaan lulusan SMK melalui edupreneur / pendidikam kewirausahaan di SMK

 

  1. METODE PENELITIAN

Metode yang digunakan dalam analisis ini adalah metode deskriptif dengan menganalisa data lulusan SMK.

 

  • HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN

Pengertian SMK

SMK merupakan pendidikan yang mempersiapkan seorang untuk mampu bekerja dalam suatu pekerjaan (Evans, 1987), sedangkan dalam  Undang – Undang No.2 tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional, SMK merupakan pendidikan yang mempersiapkan peserta didik untuk dapat bekerja dalam bidang tertentu. Dalam  Peraturan Pemerintah No.19 tahun 2005 dikatakan bahwa pendidikan menengah kejuruan adalah pendidikan pada jenjang pendidikan menengah yan mengutamakan pengembangan siswa untuk jenis pekerjaan tertentu.

Dalam Undang-undang No.20 tahun 2003, SMK memiliki tujuan khusus yaitu (a) menyiapkan peserta didik agar menjadi manusia produktif, mampu bekerja mandiri, mengisi lowongan pekerjaan yang ada sebagai tenaga kerja tingkat menengah sesuai dengan kompetensi dalam program keahlian yang dipilihnya; (b) menyiapkan peserta didik agar mampu memilih karir, ulet dan gigih dalam berkompetensi, beradaptasi di lingkungan kerja dan mengembangkan sikap profesional dalam bidang keahlian yang diminatinya; (c) membekali peserta didik dengan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan seni agar mampu mengembangkan diri di kemudian hari baik secara mandiri maupun melalui jenjang pendidikan yang lebih tinggi; dan (d) membekali peserta didik dengan kompetensi-kompetensi yang sesuai dengan program keahlian yang dipilih. Dari pengertian tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa SMK adalah suatu pendidikan yang mempersiapkan siswa-siswinya untuk siap terjun dalam dunia kerja sesuai bidang yang dipelajarinya.  Didirikannya SMK bertujuan untuk mempersiapkan lulusan SMK untuk bekerja sesuai keahliannya dan mengembangkan keprofesionalitasan. SMK juga bertujuan untuk menciptakan lulusan yang mampu berdaya saing dan wirausahawan yang produktif, adaptif dan kreatif.

 

Pendidikan Kewirausahaan

Kewirausahaan secara etimologi, berasal dari kata wira yang berarti pejuang, pahlawan, manusia unggul, teladan, berbudi luhur, gagah berani, dan berwatak agung dan usaha yang berarti perbuatan amal, bekerja, berbuat sesuatu. Dengan demikian, wirausaha adalah pejuang atau pahlawan yang berbuat sesuatu (Rusdiana, 2014).

Berikut ada beberapa definisi tentang kewirausahaan dari para ahli diantaranya:

  • Ahmad Sanusi (1994) dalam dalam Rusdiana menyatakan bahwa kewirausahaan adalah nilai yang diwujudkan dalam perilaku yang dijadikan sumber daya, tenaga penggerak, tujuan, siasat, kiat, proses, dan hasil.
  • Soeharto Prawiro, (1997), dalam Rusdiana menyataka kewirausahaan adalah nilai yang dibutuhkan untuk memulai sebuah usaha dan mengembangkan usaha.
  • Hisrich, Peters dan Sheperd, (2008) dalam Rusdiana mendefinisikan kewirausahaan sebagai proses penciptaan sesuatu yang baru pada nilai menggunakan waktu dan upaya yang diperlukan, menanggung resiko keuangan, fisik, serta resiko sosial yang mengiringi, menerima imbalan moneter yang dihasilkan, serta kepuasan dan kebebasan pribadi.

Berdasarkan definisi dari beberapa ahli tersebut, Rusdiana menyimpulkan bahwa kewirausahaan merupakan kemauan dan kemampuan seseorang dalam menghadapi berbagai resiko dengan mengambil inisiatif untuk menciptakan dan melakukan hal-hal baru melalui pemanfaatan kombinasi berbagai sumber daya dengan tujuan untuk memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik kepada seluruh pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders) dan memperoleh keuntungan sebagai konsekuensinya.

Menurut Pusat Kurikulum Balitbang Kemendiknas dalam Suyitno (2013), pendidikan kewirausahaan di sekolah bertujuan untuk membentuk manusia secara utuh (holistik) sebagai insan yang memiliki karakter, memahami dan berkarakter wirausaha. Pendidikan kewirausahaan dapat dilakukan oleh kepala sekolah, guru, tenaga kependidikan, dan peserta didik secara bersama-sama. Pendidikan kewirausahaan ini dapat diinternalisasikan dalam beberapa aspek, diantaranya

  • Pendidikan kewirausahaan terintegrasi dalam seluruh mata pelajaran, dimana penginternalisasian nilai-nilai kewiraushaan di dalam mata pelajaran sehingga terbentuklah karakter wirausahawan dan pembiasaan kewirausahaan dalam tingkah laku para siswa sehari-hari melalui pembelajaran.
  • Pendidikan kewirausahaan yang terpadu dalam kegiatan ekstra kurikuler atau diluar mata pelajaran. Kegiatan ekstra kurikuler merupakan kegiatan yang mengembangkan potensi, bakat dan minat siswa secara optimal di sekolah, dan juga menumbuhkan kemandirian siswa. Melalui kegiatan ekstra kurikuler ini maka siswa dapat menyelenggarakan kegiatan yang berdasarkan kewirausahaan secara mandiri maupun kelompok.
  • Pendidikan kewirausahaan melalui pengembangan diri, merupakan suatu upaya pembentukan karakter kewirausahaan dan kepribadian siswa melalui konseling.
  • Perubahan pelaksanaan pembelajaran kewirausahaan dari teori ke praktik. Pendidikan kewirausahaan tidak hanya secara teori saja, namun para siswa pun mencoba / praktek langsung teori-teori kewirausahaan. Pembelajaran kewirausahaan ini diarahkan pada pencapaian tiga kompetensi, yaitu penanaman karakter wirausaha, pemahaman konsep dan keterampilan dengan bobot yang lebih tinggi dari pada pemahaman konsep.
  • Pengintegrasian pendidikan kewirausahaan melalui budaya sekolah, yaitu suasana kehidupan sekolah dimana para siswa berinteraksi dengan guru, tenaga kependidikan, dan juga sesama siswa. Pengembangkan nilai-nilai pendidikan kewirausahaan dapat mereka lakukan dalam kegiatan di sekolah, seperti kejujuran, tanggung jawab, disiplin, komitmen dalam berkomunikasi dengan guru maupun sesama siswa, menjaga fasilitas sekolah dan lain sebagainya.
  • Pengintegrasian pendidikan kewirausahaan melalui muatan lokal yang diberikan kepada siswa untuk mengembangkan kemampuannya sesuai dengan kebutuhan daerah yang bersangkutan. Pendidikan muatan lokal ini tentu saja memuat karakterisktik budaya lokal, keterampilan dan nilai-nilai luhur budaya setempat dan mengangkat permasalahan sosial dan lingkungan yang pada akhirnya mampu membekali para siswa dengan keterampilan dasar sebagai bekal kehidupan untuk menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan.

Pendidikan kewirausahaan juga akan mengembangkan jiwa kewirausahaan dan membentuk perilaku kewirausahaan para siswa. Pendidikan kewirausahaan dengan penanaman karakter kewirausahaan  merupakan kompetensi yang wajib yang harus dimiliki para generasi bangsa untuk menjawab tantangan di masa depan  (Suyitno, 2013)

 

Lulusan SMK

Menurut penelitian di SMK dengan keahlian Teknik Komputer di Kabupaten Gunungkidul termasuk dalam kategori sangat tinggi dengan prosentase 67,4% dan 32,6% termasuk tinggi, dan tingkat pengetahuannya pun tergolong sangat tinggi dengan prosentase 74%, sedangkan 26% pengetahuannya tinggi. Sedangkan dalam pengalaman kerja, 65,2% siswa tergolong sangat tinggi dan 34,8% termasuk tinggi. Dari hasil tersebut, disimpulkan bahwa sebagian besar siswa SMK dengan keahlian Teknik Komputer di Gunungkidul telah memiliki kesiapan berwirausaha. Pengetahuan kewirausahaan yang tinggi juga mempengaruhi kesiapan para siswa untuk berwirausaha  (Supraba dan Rahdiyanta, 2013).

Namun, menurut data BPS 2014, sekitar 1,3 juta lulusan SMK masih banyak yang belum mendapatkan pekerjaan karena tidak ada link and match antara SMK dengan permintaan industri. Di sisi lain, angka kewirausahaan Indonesia masih rendah yaitu 1,6% dan kontribusi dari SMK masih belum begitu besar.

Selain itu, sebanyak 85% lulusan SMK langsung bekerja, 8% melanjutkan kuliah dan 1-1,5% lulusan SMK yang berwirausaha  (Khairul, 2015). Porsi lulusan SMK yang bekerja lebih banyak dari pada yang berwirausaha, padahal secara pendidikan mereka telah menguasainya sesuai dengan bidang keahliannya, baik praktek maupun teori.

Sumber lain mengatakan sebanyak 40 siswa yang baru lulus di SMK Negeri di Magelang, 30 siswa telah diterima kerja, namun masih menunggu pemberangkatan. Sementara 10 lainnya diketahui mampu masuk ke PTN bergengsi  (Kurnia, 2014). Dari data tersebut menunjukan bahwa lulusan SMK hanya sedikit yang mampu berwirausaha setelah mereka lulus dari SMK.

Menurut persepsi stakeholder, siswa, guru dan perusahaan terhadap kompetensi professional dalam pelaksanaan praktik kerja industri pada lima SMK di Kabupaten Temanggung pada aspek perencanaan instruktur dunia usaha dilapangan tidak disertakan dalam sosialisasi program prakerin (praktek kerja industri) sehingga pengetahuan dan pemahamannya kurang. Sedangkan dalam aspek pengorganisasian siswa dan instruktur dunia usaha, tidak dilibatkan langsung karena menyangkut kebijakan sekolah dengan institusi perusahaan yang menjalin hubungan kerja   (Murtiningrum, 2011).

Sikap kewirausahaan siswa pada hal kepercayaan diri siswa SMK Negeri 2 Temanggung termasuk tinggi yang berarti siswa memiliki keyakinan terhadap kemampuannya, optimis, mempunyai komitmen terhadap pekerjaan, disiplin, tekun dalam melakukan pekerjaan, memiliki rasa tanggung jawab yang tinggi, mampu menghadapi dan menyelesaikan masalah sendiri tanpa menunggu bantuan dari pihak lain. Sedangkan sikap kewirausahaan siswa dalam hal berorientasi pada tugas dan hasil masih perlu ditingkatkan perilaku inisiatif siswa melalui pelatihan, peningkatan disiplin diri dan motivasi agar siswa lebih bersemangat untuk berprestasi. Dalam mengambil resiko dalam berwirausaha, siswa masih membutuhkan motivasi karena siswa masih kurang berani dalam mengambil resiko dan untuk menjadi lebih berani dalam memulai sesuatu yang sudah menjadi keputusannya (Priastuti, 2011).

 

Pembahasan

                Dari data lulusan SMK dari berbagai sumber dapat dilihat bahwa kesiapan lulusan SMK dalam berwirausaha masih termasuk rendah, walaupun di beberapa SMK ada yang termasuk tinggi kesiapan kewirausahaannya. Dari data-data tersebut juga dapat kita lihat bahwa masih banyak lulusan SMK masih belum mendapatkan pekerjaan, dan masih banyak yang bekerja di suatu tempat usaha, sedangkan yang berwirausaha masih sangatlah sedikit.

Pendidikan kewirausahaan memang telah diberikan di SMK, namun secara prakteknya, pendidikan kewirausahaan dirasa kurang. Pendidikan kewirausahaan yang diberikan perlu diimbangi dengan praktek nyata, sehingga para siswa SMK pun tidak hanya tinggi pengetahuan kewirausahaannya, namun juga sikap dan perilaku kewirausahaannya juga tinggi. Bahkan teori-teori kewirausahaan yang didapat selama pendidikand di SMK dapat diterapkan langsung dalam prakteknya di sekolah dengan mendirikan usaha secara madiri maupun kelompok di sekolah. Para siswa SMK perlu belajar mengenai praktek manajemen usaha secara langsung, seperti bagaimana menjalankan sebuah usaha, memahami konsep konsumen dan menghadapi persaingan. Dengan dibekali hal tersebut maka diharapkan lulusan SMK bisa lebih percaya diri dalam berwirausaha (Entrepreneurship in Vocational Education adn Training, 2009).

Dari data tersebut juga terlihat, beberapa aspek dimana siswa SMK kurang berani dan kurang mantap dalam mengambil sebuah keputusan dalam berwirausaha. Dalam hal ini, peran guru sebagai pendidik juga ikut ambil bagian. Guru hendaknya memotivasi dan mendukung siswanya untuk berani dalam mengambil keputusan dan menjadi lebih mandiri dalam berwirausaha.

Pertangung jawaban untuk pengembangan pendidikan kewirausahaan dan kebijakan pelatihan siswa SMK tergantung pada keputusan nasional, regional dan pemerintah lokal. Namun, pemerintah Eropa dalam hal ini membantu dengan mendukung koordinasi antara kebijakan nasional, mengkaji pengalaman yang terbaik dan pemantaua n perkembangan.

 

  1. KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

Dari data analisis tersebut menunjukkan pendidikan kewirausahaan yang dilaksanakan di sekolah dirasa masih kurang, sehingga banyak lulusan SMK yang belum mampu berwirausaha, atau mereka mampu berwirausaha setelah mereka bekerja beberapa tahun di suatu tempat usaha. Banyak lulusan SMK yang bekerja di suatu usaha bukannya membangun usaha sendiri.

Pendidikan kewirausahaan memang telah diberikan di SMK, namun pendidikan kewirausahaan tersebut masih dirasa kurang, sehingga perlu adanya praktek nyata dalam berwirausaha selama di SMK dengan beberapa cara seperti ekstra kurikuler ataupun koprasi mandiri sekolah. Melalui praktek-praktek tersebut selama di sekolah maka kesiapan berwirausaha siswa setelah lulus bisa semakin matang.

Kemudian, dari hasil analisis ini didapatkan beberapa usulan yaitu, pendidikan kewirausahaan di SMK lebih diperdalam atau diadakannya ekstrakurikuler kewirausahaan yang menunjang pendidikan kewirausahaan yang ada disekolah. Melalui kegiatan ekstra kurikuler atau kegiatan yang mendukung adanya kewirausahaan di sekolah akan melatih para siswa dalam berwirausaha, sehingga ketika lulus nantinya para lulusan dapat menerapkan secara langsung apa yang telah diperoleh, para siswa juga menjadi terbiasa dengan dunia wirausaha sehingga setelah lulus mereka dapat berwirausaha.

Selain itu, diberikan tambahan pendidikan pemasaran, sehingga siswa mampu memasarkan usahanya dengan baik di masyarakat. Dengan pendidikan pemasaran maka para siswa dapat mengetahui cara-cara dalam memasarkan usaha meraka dengan cara yang baik, kreatif dan unik. Pendidikan pemasaran ini juga harus diterapkan atau dipraktekan di sekolah seiring dengan ekstrakurikuler kewirausahaan di sekolah, dengan begitu para siswa juga telah berlatih untuk memasarkan usaha mereka sejak di SMK.

Selain itu, peran guru juga berpengaruh terhadap kemandirian siswa, sehingga guru juga harus mendorong dan memotivasi siswa untuk dapat mandiri dan berwirausaha. Guru sebagai pendidik dan pendamping siswa dalam belajar pendidikan kewirausahaan dan pemasaran harus mendukung para siswanya untuk berkembang, dan mandiri dalam beriwirausaha.

 

UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH

Dalam penulisan jurnal ini penulis ingin mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, atas berkat dan karunia-Nya, penulis dapat menyelesaikan jurnal ini. Penulis juga mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Dr. Bambang Ismanto, M.Si selaku pembimbing penulis dalam penulisan jurnal dan penulis juga mengucapkan terimakasih atas dukungan dari teman-teman MMP A 2015 UKSW.

 

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Teknologi Pendidikan sebagai Pembelajaran Kompetitif untuk Meningkatkan Prestasi Siswa: Studi kasus di salah satu SMA di Salatiga

 

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui cara atau metode yang tepat guna meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa di salah satu SMA di Salatiga dengan menggunakan teknologi sebagai sarana perbaikan proses pembelajaran. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah dengan deskriptif analisis dengan menggunakan instrument angket yang dibagikan secara acak kepada 64 siswa SMA “X” di Salatiga. Teknologi pendidikan merupakan suatu perangkat bantu untuk memfasilitasi proses belajar mengajar supaya lebih efektif, menarik dan efisien, serta dapat membantu guru ataupun siswa untuk mendapatkan materi dengan cepat dan dapat belajar secara mandiri. Teknologi pendidikan dapat berupa audio, visual dan audio visual. Teknologi dalam pendidikan ini dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan hasil prestasi siswa dan mutu pendidikan yang ada serta menciptakan proses belajar mengajar yang kreatif, inovatif, menarik dan menantang. Penelitian ini memiliki manfaat yaitu untuk mendapatkan metode pembelajaran yang tepat untuk meningkatkan prestasi siswa, sehingga mutu pendidikan di SMA “X” Salatiga dapat meningkat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa prestasi belajar (nilai rata-rata siswa) dipengaruhi oleh motivasi dan keuletan siswa dalam belajar, sehinngga metode pembelajaran yang tepat adalah dengan metode pembelajaran yang kompetitif. Dalam penelitian ini didapat beberapa saran untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa melalui metode pembelajaran yang kompetitif dan menggunakan teknologi pendidikan sebagai media pembelajaran. Beberapa cara yang dapat dilakukan diantaranya dengan membuat film, membuat poster dengan menggunakan software yang ada, pembelajaran dengan menggunakan skype atau guru membuat online game yang sesuai dengan materi yang diajarkan.

 

Kata kunci       : Prestasi belajar, teknologi pendidikan, motivasi

 

 

PENDAHULUAN

  1. Latar Belakang

Perkembangan jaman yang pesat saat ini terlihat dengan teknologi yang semakin maju dan mempengaruhi banyak aspek kehidupan manusia. Seperti yang dikatakan oleh Toffler (1980) bahwa kekuatan terbesar dunia adalah ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Maka, saat ini pun kehidupan manusia tidak dapat lepas dari teknologi dan salah satu aspek yang tidak lepas dari teknologi adalah pendidikan.

Pendidikan mulai dituntut untuk memberi kesegaran dalam setiap proses pembelajaran dengan memanfaatkan teknologi yang ada.  Pengaruh teknologi telah mendesak para pelaku pendidikan untuk berlomba-lomba memberi inovasi dan warna baru dalam pendidikan. Teknologi sangat membantu proses pembelajaran, materi mudah diakses, dapat melakukan pembelajaran tanpa bertatap muka (skype) serta mempermudah sistem usaha dan kegiatan administrasi lembaga pendidikan (Pengaruh Teknologi dalam Dunia Pendidikan, 2012).

Perkembangan teknologi ini juga telah dimanfaatkan dalam pendidikan oleh beberapa Negara, seperti di Australia, dimana banyak universitas melakukan Web-based lecture technologies (WBLT) atau pembelajaran melalui teknologi web. Proses pembelajaran ini pun juga dinilai efektif dan mendapatkan tanggapan yang positif dari para mahasiswanya (K.Woo, et al., 2008).

Perkembangan teknologi juga dimanfaatkan di beberapa lembaga pendidikan di berbagai negara untuk mengetahui motivasi belajar siswa, seperti halnya yang dilakukan oleh David Ockert dari Toyo University. David meneliti mengenai penggunaan tablet computer untuk melihat atau mengkaji ulang kemampuan siswa dalam berbicara bahasa Inggris dan untuk melihat pengaruh motivasi belajar siswa. Dari penelitiannya terlihat bahwa dengan menggunakan tablet tersebut, siswa menjadi termotivasi untuk belajar lebih giat dan mereka memberikan tanggapan yang positif terhadap review dari penampilan mereka yang mereka lihat melalui tablet tersebut.

 

  1. Rumusan Masalah

Dalam penelitian ini, adapun rumusan masalah adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. Apakah faktor determinan yang mempengaruhi prestasi belajar siswa di SMA “X” Salatiga?
  2. Bagaimana cara meningkatkan prestasi siswa di SMA “X” Salatiga?
  3. Model pembelajaran apa yang dapat meningkatkan prestasi siswa di SMA “X” Salatiga?

 

  1. Tujuan

Adapun tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah:

  1. Mengetahui faktor determinan yang mempengaruhi prestasi siswa di SMA “X” Salatiga
  2. Mengetahui cara untuk meningkatkan prestasi siswa di SMA “X” Salatiga
  3. Mendapatkan metode pembelajaran yang sesuai untuk meningkatkan prestasi siswa dan pendidikan di SMA “X” Salatiga

 

  1. Manfaat

Manfaat dalam penelitian ini dapat berupa internal maupun eksternal. Manfaat internal bagi SMA “X” Salatiga adalah mendapatkan model pembelajaran yang tepat untuk meningkatkan prestasi siswa, sehingga dapat meningkatkan mutu pendidikan di SMA “X” Salatiga.

Manfaat eksternal yang dapat diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan metode pengajaran yang baru yang dapat diterapkan untuk meningkatkan mutu prestasi siwa di sekolah-sekolah lainnya untuk meningkatkan prestasi siswa dan mutu pendidikan sekolah.

 

LANDASAN TEORI

  1. Teknologi Pendidikan

Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, teknologi pendidikan adalah metode bersistem untuk merencanakan, menggunakan, dan menilai seluruh kegiatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran dengan memperhatikan, baik sumber teknis maupun manusia dan interaksi antara keduanya, sehingga mendapatkan bentuk pendidikan yang lebih efektif.  Sedangkan menurut Kandung, (2014), teknologi pendidikan adalah kajian dan praktik untuk membantu proses belajar dan meningkatkan kinerja dengan membuat, menggunakan, dan mengelola proses dan sumber teknologi yang memadai. Dalam arti sempit teknologi pendidikan adalah media pendidikan, yakni teknlogi yang digunakan sebagai alat bantu dalam pendidikan supaya lebih efektif, efisien dan berhasil guna.

Teknologi pendidikan menurut Chaeruman (2011) adalah studi dan praktek etis yang memfasilitasi pembelajaran dan meningkatkan kinerja dengan menciptakan, menggunakan dan mengelola proses dan sumber teknologi yang tepat. Definisi lain mengenai teknologi pendidikan menurut (AECT) Association for Educational Communication and Technology 2004, adalah studi dan praktek etis dalam upaya memfasilitasi pembelajaran dan meningkatkan kinerja dengan cara menciptakan, menggunakan/memanfaatkan, dan mengelola proses dan sumber-sumber teknologi yang tepat. Jelas, tujuan utamanya masih tetap untuk memfasilitasi pembelajaran (agar efektif, efisien dan menarik/joyfull) dan meningkatkan kinerja (Chaeruman, 2008).

 

  1. Peranan Teknologi dalam Pendidikan

        Peranan teknologi dalam pendidikan memiliki potensi yang mempengaruhi proses belajar mengajar, seperti yang dikatakan oleh Ely, dalam Kahirul Umam (2014), bahwa potensi teknologi pendidikan dapat (1) meningkatkan produktivitas pendidikan dengan mempercepat tahap belajar, (2) memberikan kemungkinan pelajar untuk belajar secara mandiri, (3) memberikan dasar yang lebih ilmiah terhadap pembelajaran, (4) lebih memantapkan pembelajaran, (5) memungkinkan untuk belajar (mengakses materi) dengan cepat, dan (6) memungkinkan penyajian pembelajaran yang lebih luas.

Peranan teknologi dalam pendidikan dapat berupa media yang bermanfaat untuk menumbuhkan motivasi belajar siswa, penjelasan materi menjadi lebih jelas, metode pembelajaran menjadi lebih bervariasi dan komunikatif, serta siswa dapat melakukan aktivitas selama kegiatan belajar, tidak hanya diam mendengarkan namun bisa mengamati, mendemonstrasi dan memerakan (Sudjana dan Rivai 1992, dalam LiniEdukasi).

 

  1. Teknologi dalam Pembelajaran

            Bentuk teknologi pembelajaran menurut (YPSB, 2014) dapat berupa:

  1. Teks (karakter alfa-numerik ditampilkan dalam buku, poster, papan tulis, layar komputer),
  2. Audio (mencakup dapat didengar oleh seseorang seperti suara, musik, suara mekanik),
  3. Visual (diagram di poster, gambar pada papan tulis, foto, gambar dalam sebuah buku, kartun),
  4. Media gerak (media yang menampilkan gerak termasuk rekaman video dan animasi),
  5. Manipulasi tiga dimensi (dapat disentuh dan ditangani oleh mahasiswa),
  6. Perangkat lunak

Dalam pendidikan, perangkat lunak seperti aplikasi SPSS, corel draw, dll memberikan kesempatan yang lebih banyak kepada para siswa untuk mempelajari hal yang lebih esensial (Susanto).

 

  1. Faktor yang mempengaruhi Prestasi Siswa

Prestasi belajar siswa dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, yaitu intern (dalam) dan ekstern (luar). Faktor intern adalah faktor yang dialami dan dihayati secara langsung oleh siswa dan berpengaruh terhadap proses pembelajaran dalam pencapaian prestasi belajar. Faktor intern ini meliputi, sikap siswa terhadap belajar, motivasi belajar, konsentrasi belajar, kemampuan mengolah materi, kemampuan menggali prestasi belajar yang tersimpan, kemampuan berprestasi/ unjuk prestasi belajar, rasa percaya diri siswa, intelegensi, keberhasilan dan kebiasaan belajar. Sedangkan faktor ekstern adalah faktor yang berasal dari luar diri siswa yang mempengaruhi prestasi belajar siswa, diantaranya meliputi guru sebagai pembimbing siswa, sarana dan prasarana belajar, kondisi pembelajarana, kebijakan penilaian, kurikulum yang diterapkan dan lingkungan sosial siswa (Dimyati, Mudjiono, 2006).

Sedangkan menurut Slameto (2003 : 54-72), faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi belajar digolongkan menjadi dua, faktor yang pertama adalah faktor internal yang meliputi jasmaniah (kesehatan dan cacat tubuh), psikologi (intelegensi, perhatian minat bakat, motif, kematangan dan kesiapan) dan faktor kelelahan. Sedangkan faktor yang kedua adalah faktor eksternal yang meliputi faktor keluarga (cara orang tua mendidik, relasi antara anggota keluarga, suasana rumah, keadaan ekonomi keluarga, pengertian orang tua dan latar belakang kebudayaan), faktor sekolah (metode mengjar guru, kurikulum, relasi guru dengan siswa, relasi siswa dengan siswa, disiplin sekolah, alat pelajaran, waktu sekolah, ukuran standar belajar, keadaan gedung, metode belajar dan tugas rumah), dan faktor masyarakat (kegiatan siswa dalam masyarakat, mass media, teman bergaul dan bentuk kehidupan masyarakat).

 

METODE

Dalam melakukan penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan instrument angket yang dibagikan secara acak kepada 64 siswa SMA “X” Salatiga sebagai sampel. Analisis data menggunakan deskriptif dan korelasi klinis dengan menggunakan SPSS model 2.0. Variabel independen dalam penelitian ini yaitu, motivasi belajar siswa, keuletan dan kerja sama siswa, sedangkan variable dependen adalah nilai rata-rata siswa, yang kemudian disusun dalam instrument angket dengan jumlah 20 soal. Angket ini terlebih dahulu diuji validitas dan reliabilitas sebelum dipakai dilapangan.

 

 

HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN

Untuk mengetahui hubungan antara variable X, motivasi, keuletan dan kerja sama terhadap variable Y, nilai rata-rata siswa, maka langkah pertama yang penulis lakukan adalah dengan uji normalitas. Uji normalitas yang dilakukan sebagai berikut:

  1. Uji Normalitas

Regression

Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .967a .935 .928 1.81683
a. Predictors: (Constant), Keuletan, Kerja_sama, motiv
b. Dependent Variable: Rata_rata_nilai

Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics
  N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error
Unstandardized Residual 30 -2.96841 3.04395 0E-7 1.72028647 .108 .427 -1.094 .833
Valid N (listwise) 30                

Dari data tersebut terlihat rasio Skewness = 0.108 / 0.427 = 0.252, sedangkan dalam rasio Kurtosis = -1.094 / 0.833 = -1.313.

Untuk dapat dikatakan normal, maka rasio Skewness dan Kurtosis harus berada di antara -2 sampai dengan +2, dan dari data tersebut dapat dilihat bahwa rasio Skewness dan Kurtosis berada dianata -2 sampai +2, maka dapat dinyatakan bahwa distribusi data adalah normal.

 

  1. Uji Autokorelasi

Setelah diketahui bahwa distribusi data normal, maka dilakukanlah uji autokorelasi untuk mengetahui korelasi antar variable. Untuk mengetahui korelasi antar variable maka peneliti menguji variable – variable dengan uji korelasi Durbin Watson dan di dapat data sebagai berikut:

 

 

Model Summaryb

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Durbin-Watson
1 .967a .935 .928 1.81683 2.213
a. Predictors: (Constant), Keuletan, Kerja_sama, motiv
b. Dependent Variable: Rata_rata_nilai

 

Nilai DW dalam data tersebut adalah 2,213, dimana nilai DW berada diantara du sampai dengan 4-du, maka koefisien autokorelasi sama dengan nol. Artinya, tidak ada autokorelasi dalam variable – variable tersebut.

 

  1. Uji Multikolinieralitas

Kemudian, untuk mengetahui atau menentukan apakah suatu model memiliki gejala multikolinieritas, maka dilakukanlah uji multikolinieritas dengan data sebagai berikut:

 

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig. Collinearity Statistics
B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF
1 (Constant) 15.979 4.367   3.659 .001    
Motiv .479 .060 .572 7.936 .000 .481 2.080
Kerja_sama -.011 .044 -.013 -.251 .803 1.000 1.000
Keuletan .269 .041 .470 6.525 .000 .481 2.080
a. Dependent Variable: Rata_rata_nilai

 

Dari data tersebut, dapat dilihat bahwa nilai VIF dari variable – variable tersebut dibawah nilai 10, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa model regresi ini tidak memiliki masalah multikoliniertitas.

Untuk melihat keeratan hubungan antara dua variable penjelas maka dilakukan uji partial correlation, dengan hasil sebagai berikut:

Correlations
Control Variables motiv Kerja_sama Keuletan
Rata_rata_nilai motiv Correlation 1.000 .035 -.422
Significance (2-tailed) . .856 .023
Df 0 27 27
Kerja_sama Correlation .035 1.000 .018
Significance (2-tailed) .856 . .926
Df 27 0 27
Keuletan Correlation -.422 .018 1.000
Significance (2-tailed) .023 .926 .
Df 27 27 0

 

Untuk mengetahui apakah hubungan antara dua variable bebas memiliki masalah multikoliniaritas adalah melihat nilai significance (2-tailed), jika nilainya lebih kecil dari 0,05 (α=5%) maka diindikasikan memiliki gejala multikolineritas yang serius. Dari data tersebut dapat disimpulkn seluruh variable penjelas tidak terbebas dari masalah Multikolinearitas, tidak ada yang berada dibawah 0,05.

 

  1. Uji Heteroskedastisitas

Uji heteroskedastisitas ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah suatu model terbebas dari masalah heteroskedastisitas atau tidak. Uji yang dilakukan menggunakan uji Glejser.

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig. Collinearity Statistics
B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF
1 (Constant) -.175 2.294   -.076 .940    
Motiv -.001 .032 -.007 -.027 .979 .481 2.080
Kerja_sama .023 .023 .188 .975 .339 1.000 1.000
Keuletan .001 .022 .013 .046 .964 .481 2.080
a. Dependent Variable: abresid

Dari nilai t-statistik dari seluruh variable penjelas tidak ada yang signifikan secara statistic, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa model ini tidak mengalami masalah heteroskedastisitas.

 

  1. Uji Korelasi

Uji korelasi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui korelasi tiap variable yang diteliti.

Correlations
  motiv Kerja_sama Keuletan Rata_rata_nilai
Motiv Pearson Correlation 1 .011 .721** .910**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .952 .000 .000
N 30 30 30 30
Kerja_sama Pearson Correlation .011 1 .005 -.003
Sig. (2-tailed) .952   .977 .986
N 30 30 30 30
Keuletan Pearson Correlation .721** .005 1 .882**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .977   .000
N 30 30 30 30
Rata_rata_nilai Pearson Correlation .910** -.003 .882** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .986 .000  
N 30 30 30 30
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Dari data diatas dapat dilihat bahwa variable yang signifikan mempengaruhi nilai rata-rata nilai siswa adalah motivasi dan keuletan.

 

  1. Uji Determinan
Variables Entered/Removeda
Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method
1 motiv . Stepwise (Criteria: Probability-of-F-to-enter <= .050, Probability-of-F-to-remove >= .100).
2 Keuletan . Stepwise (Criteria: Probability-of-F-to-enter <= .050, Probability-of-F-to-remove >= .100).
a. Dependent Variable: Rata_rata_nilai

Dari data ini, terlihat jelas bahwa yang mempengaruhi nilai rata-rata siswa adalah motivasi dan keuletan siswa.

 

KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

Dari data tersebut dapat ditarik kesimpulan, bahwa yang mempengaruhi prestasi siswa di SMA “X” Salatiga adalah motivasi dan keuletan siswa. Jika motivasi dan keuletan siswa ini ditingkatkan maka nilai rata-rata atau prestasi siswa akan naik. Untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan keuletan siswa maka perlu adanya perubahan dalam proses belajar mengajar, yaitu dengan mengadakan proses belajar mengajar yang kompetitif, seperti mengadakan perlombaan, turnamen, atau debat. Melalui model pembelajaran kompetitif ini maka siswa akan merasa tertantang, dan termotivasi untuk menang, serta akan semakin ulet untuk mengetahui banyak materi dalam pembelajaran.

Banyak ragam teknologi yang dapat diterapkan untuk model pembelajaran yang kompetitif seperti lomba membuat web, e-learning, online game yang dibuat oleh guru sesuai dengan materi, lomba membuat design web sekolah untuk kepentingan pemasaran sekolah, membuat blog pribadi untuk mengunggah berbagai aktivitas yang berkaitan dengan pendidikan, lomba membuat film dokumenter atau film pendek tentang pendidikan maupun materi sekolah, lomba membuat poster dengan menggunakan software grafis yang nantinya dapat di unggah ke jejaring sosial dan dapat dilihat oleh banyak orang. Selain itu, guru juga dapat menggunakan alat rekam atau handycam untuk merekam penampilan siswa-siswinya yang kemudian rekaman tersebut dapat digunakan untuk melihat ulang penampilan para siswa dan para siswa nantinya dapat menilai penampilan mereka sendiri. Dengan menggunakan teknologi yang ada juga, guru dapat melakukan pembelajaran melalui skype misalkan, dan melalui skype ini, siswa dan guru dapat berinteraksi dengan para guru dan murid dari berbagai belahan dunia, sehingga para siswa dan guru dapat bertukar pendapat, belajar bersama-sama atau berbagai ilmu satu sama lain. Selain itu para siswa nantinya juga dapat melakukan debatei dengan siswa dari belahan dunia lain melalui skype ini, sehingga akan memotivasi siswa untuk lebih giat belajar dan ulet atau tekun belajar.

Adapun beberapa masukan atau saran yang didapat dalam penelitian ini, yang pertama adalah guru hendaknya melakukan model pembelajaran yang kompetitif, yang mendukung motivasi siswa untuk belajar. Guru dapat melakukan permainan dalam pembelajaran (games), turnamen, perlombaan atau debat. Melalui model pembelajaran ini siswa akan merasa tertantang untuk memenangkan perlombaan tersebut, sehingga motivasi belajarnya pun akan meningkat. Kemudian, perlu juga adanya pelatihan guru, supaya kualitas guru dalam mengajar bisa meningkat dan bervariasi lagi, serta guru bisa semakin mahir, kreatif dan inovatif dalam memanfaatkan teknologi yang ada dalam proses belajar mengajar. Kemudian pemerintah pun hendaknya juga memperhatikan kelengkapan sarana dan prasarana sekolah yang salah satunya adalah media teknologi dan juga akses internet, karena kedua hal tersebut dapat membantu proses belajar mengajar menjadi lebih baik, kreatif, inovatif dan bervariatif.

 

UCAPAN TERIMAKASIH

Dalam penulisan makalah ini penulis ingin mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa atas berkat dan kuasa-Nya, sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan makalah ini. Kemudian, penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Prof. Dr. Slameto, M.Pd. selaku pembimbing penulis dalam membuat makalah ini, serta teman-teman MMP A 2015 yang mendukung penulis untuk menyelesaikan makalah ini.

 

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Chaeruman, U. A. (2008, January 31st). Teknologi Pendidikan: Beberapa Definisi. Retrieved November 13, 2015, from TeknologiPendidikan.NET: http://www.teknologipendidikan.net/2008/01/31/what-is-instructionaltechnology/

Chaeruman, U. A. (2011, Agustus 13). TeknologiPendidikan.NET. Retrieved Oktober 31, 2015, from Teknologi Pendidikan: Definisi ICT 2004: http://www.teknologipendidikan.net/2011/08/13/teknologi-pendidikan-definisi-ict-2004/

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Dimyati, Mudjiono. (2006). Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Penerbit Rineka Cipta.

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Karen Woo, et al. (2008). Web-based Lecture technologies: Blurring the Boundaries between face to face and distance learning. ALT-J, Research in Learning Technology Vol.16 No. 2 , 81-93.

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Ockert, D. (2015). Using a tablet computer for positive self-review: Influence on students’ EFL motives. Accents Asia 8(1) , 22-26.

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Peran Teknologi dalam Pembelajaran dan Motivasi Siswa. (n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015, from LiniEdukasi: http://liniedukasi.blogspot.co.id/2012/06/peran-teknologi-dalam-pembelajaran-dan.html

Slameto. (2003). Belajar dan Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhinya. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta.

Susanto, S. (n.d.). Peran Teknologi dalam Proses Pembelajaran. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from Pusat Inovasi Pembelajaran Universitas Katolik Parahyangan: http://pip.unpar.ac.id/publikasi/buletin/sancaya-vol-02-no-03-edisi-mei-juni-2014/peran-teknologi-dalam-proses-pembelajaran/

Teknologi dan Media Memudahkan Pembelajaran. (2013, May 11). Retrieved November 12, 2015, from YPSB (Yayasan Pendidikan Sekolah Bruder): http://vianneymtb.wordpress.com/2013/05/1 1/teknologi-dan-mediamemudah kan-pembelajaran/

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STUDENTS’ VIEW ON THE TEACHER’S USE OF COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES TO FACILITATE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY: A STUDY AT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM OF PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION (PGSD)-SWCU

Abstract

Communication is the important thing for people to interact each other, and the communication that mostly use by people is speaking. As it is confirm by Davies (2000) who said the significant role of communication both in daily life and in learning English has led the English teachers to keep improving their techniques in teaching English. One of that ways of doing it is through applying various communicative activities in the classroom which are aimed to develop learner communicate competence. The purpose of this study was to find out what communicative activities used by the teacher in Integrated Course class at International Program of Primary Teacher Education and how do the students’ view on the communicative activities are used by the teacher to facilitate their speaking ability. The participants of the study were 24 International Program students of 2013 academic year, Satya Wacana Christian University (SWCU) Salatiga, who are taking Integrated Course. In this research, the data gathering by class observation, questionnaire and interview. The result of the study shows that the communicative activities used by the teacher are helping them to improve their speaking ability such as, add their vocabulary and get used to speak English, even though some students feel the activities make them bored.

Key words:    Communicative activity, speaking, students’ view

 

INTRODUCTION

Communication is one of the important parts in life. In business field, having good communication or having good English speaking ability is important. According to Nicole, the “eHow“ contributor in business is for every people to be able to encourage, persuade and inspire other people using good and effective communication. In this way, communication ability in business will give or make clear direction for the members, business to business relationship and general public and that will help the business become success.

Not only in the business field, communication ability also important in our daily life. We can communicate with each other by speaking one or more than one language. The importance is confirmed by Thornbury who said that speaking is the most important part of daily life. The importance is showed through the fact that the average person produces tens of thousands of words a day, although some people – like auctioneers and politicians – may produce even more than that (2005:1).

Communication is not only used in our daily life, but also for learning English. In learning English it is important for the learners to develop their communication competence, which is the ability to use the linguistic system effectively and appropriately. It is important for the learners to develop their communicative competence. By developing their communicative competence they will be able to communicate in English in their real life (Doughty and Long, 2003).

The significant role of communication both in daily life and in learning English has led the English teachers to keep improving their techniques in teaching English. One of that ways of doing it is through applying various communicative activities in the classroom which are aimed to develop learner communicate competence. For example, teacher can use role-play, discussion, and/or simulation. In role-play, the teacher usually asks the students to play or to act as a costumer and waitress/waiter, for example. The teacher will give the students a role and instruction to act as costumer and waitress/waiter. Then, in discussion the students can just sit around and talk about a topic like family, child abuse, and so on. Then they will get the result. In the discussion the teacher might give the students a questions or a case to be solved by the students. As for the simulations, it is similar with role-play, but in this activity the students can act and use property or realistic thing to act like in the real world. For example, using real boarding pass or luggage to act as passenger of an airplane. These kinds of activities according to Davies (2000), are designed to encourage and support the learners to communicate or speak in English more naturally as possible.

Since communicative activities are important in facilitating students’ speaking ability, several studies have been done and resulted in different views toward the activities that the teacher used.  The study that was done by Dedi (2012), was aimed at improving students’ speaking through communicative language teaching method, at Islamic Boarding School of Bengkulu, Indonesia. In this study, the researcher wanted to know how communicative language teaching can improve students’ speaking ability. The result revealed that communicative activities made the students to be more active and had a great participation in speaking activity. Furthermore the students felt more comfortable in expressing their ideas in communicative activity since it can improve their speaking. Another related study was done by McClintock (2011), it is the study of Korean university students’ perceptions of communicative language teaching that was done to find out Korean students’ view on Communicative Language Teaching activities in English classroom. In this study, the finding showed that the majority of the South Korean university students favored group activities, outside language use, task-based learning, use of authentic materials and information gap activities. Besides that, majority of Korean students enjoy to work highly competitive when it comes to grade.

It is insightful to know the studies on communicative activities found in Bengkulu, Indonesia also in Korea, because a practical situation can be seen and compared with the theoretical framework of communicative activity. It is more useful however, to know how such issue occurs in the writer’s context. Therefore, the writer want investigate the students’ view toward communicative activities used by the teacher in Integrated Course (IC) in the International Program Primary Teacher Education (PGSD) Satya Wacana Christian University (SWCU), and this study aimed to answer the following question:

  1. What types of communicative activities are used by the teacher in IC class at PGSD-SWCU?
  2. How do the students perceive the communicative activities used by the teacher to facilitate their speaking ability?

The result of the research can provide useful information for the readers about how communicative activities work in Indonesian context, especially in teaching level by the teacher. The result of this study can also be used for teachers to create new or more interesting activity to facilitate students’ speaking English ability and to improve the students’ speaking ability.

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

This section discusses types of Communicative activities and Communicative language teaching as an approach from where the communicative activities are adopted.

Communicative Language Teaching

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach originated issue in the late 1960s by Noam Chomsky as part of changes in the British language teaching tradition. Noam Chomsky is an American linguistic who had demonstrated that the current standard structural theories of language that capable of accounting for the fundamental characteristic of language. This approach also includes the creativity and uniqueness of individual sentences. By that, the British saw that they need to focus in language teaching on communication rather than on mastery the structures or tenses.

Based on the underlying theory, this approach is used to teach learners to use the real world language in the classroom, the real communication that can promote learning. That is why CLT help the learners to be able to speak English fluently for their daily life, and to know more about communicative language to communicate in their daily life. The strength of CLT is allowing the learners to use the target language in meaningful context and brings the real world language in the classroom. To achieve this purpose some activities are used in CLT such as role-play, dialogues, simulation, and discussion(Harmer: 2001).

 

 

Types of Communicative Activities

There are several types of communicative activities they are information gap, jigsaw, communication games, discussion, simulation, role-play, and dialogue.

Information gap (Barrier Games) activity is a kind of activity that refers to the real communication to get information by sharing their information to each other. This activity can be done in pairs or group. In this activity the students can ask questions to get information to complete the task from the teacher. For example, the teacher divide the learners in pairs. One learner gets the information about the train departure, price and etc. and the other one needs the information about the train departure, price and etc. Then, they need to give and ask for information without looking at their information cards (Richard:2006). This information gap activity is argued promote both advantages and disadvantages. The advantage is to make the students become more active in to communicate with others. Thus they can build their confidence in communicate with others (Prabhu:1987). In the other hand, the disadvantage in this activity is the teacher can be passive because the teacher will not talk too much (Amaliani: 2011).

The second activity is Jigsaw. This activity can be done in group and each group will get different information needed to complete the activity. For example, the teacher plays recording about three people who has different point of view about something. Then, each group only focuses on one point of view and the learner has to take a note of that. After that, in group, they do the role-play based on the discussion that they got from the recording (Richard:2006) There are some benefits from this activity. For example, help students to build deep knowledge of the material and build conceptual understanding and also to develop their teamwork skill (County: 2003).

The third activity is Communication games. Here, the learners have to work with other learners in order to solve the games like puzzle, draw a picture, or find similarities and differences between pictures (Harmer:2001). The benefits of this activity are for the students to be more interested in learning and for the fun teaching learning process. Besides, the teacher does not need to explain too much about the material, this activity sometimes takes a long time and when the students like it they will be noisy and active. Consequently, the teacher may have enough time to explain the material (Diana: 2010).

The fourth activity is Discussion. Discussion can be held for answering some questions or to solve some problems. Learners can share ideas about a topic, or find solutions in their discussion group and get the decision or the result. Besides, learners can get involved in agree/disagree discussions. In this type of discussions, the teacher can set the group 4 or 5 learners in each group, and provide two statements like “people learn best when they read vs. people learn best when they travel”. Then each group discusses it, and presents their opinion or their result to the class. At the end, the class decides the winning group who defended the idea in the best way (Harmer:2001). There are some strength and weaknesses of discussion as argued by Creswell, J.W (1998), Kruger, R.A and M. A. Casey (2000) and Fern, E.F (2001). The strengths are increasing the students’ interaction ability toward each other and help students to involve their ability in the research process and this activity. Then, for the weaknesses, this activity can be dominated by some dominant students and that makes the output biased.

The fifth is simulations. Simulation is very similar to role-play but it is more elaborated than role-play. In simulations, students can bring items or property or documents to class to create a more realistic environment based on the topic given by the teacher. For example is a learner is acting as a singer, he/she brings a microphone to sing, dresses like a popular singer, or if the lesson is about grocery stores, the learners can bring some products (coffee, a jar or jam and so on) and they also can play money for making their purchases (Nunan:2003). The most outstanding point of this activity is for the students can practice use the real word language or the target language (Taylor and Walford: 1972). In the other hand, the shortcoming the teacher should be more careful to select the topic or theme to make a simulation and the teacher should prepare anything well to make everything going well during the simulation (Mei Lin: 1993).

The sixth activity is Role Play. Role play is one other ways of getting students to speak and it is also an excellent activity that brings the real-world in class. Besides that, role-play also help the learner to practice speaking the target language before they do in their real world. In role-play activity, the learner will get particular role in target language. For example in the play there are David and a doctor. One learner become David and the one become doctor, then the play is about David who gets stomachache and wants to visit the doctor to tell what he feels.  In merit of this activity is fun and the efficient (Shermila:2013). However, this activity can bring some disadvantages, like not all the students can enjoy this activity and can make the students become show off because they get too involved and lose their objectivity (Kumar: 2011).

The next activity is dialogue. Dialogues are conversation between two participants. This activity can be done face-to-face, then engaged in by all human cultures, and provide an interactive context. Sometime the participant like talk in daily conversation and normally. For example, the learners talk about asking where some things are (the book, umbrella, or television) in pairs. There are some advantages in this activity (Brennan:2010). For example, students can speak up in pairs or group and the students can practice speaking English for a real-life purposes such as giving information, asking questions or arguing for a different solution (Weimer: 2011).

 

THE STUDY

  1. Context of the study

The study took place at Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia, more specifically at the International Program Department of Primary Teacher Education (Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar). In this department, the students are prepared to be an elementary school English teacher who can teach subjects in English. Therefore, they are equipped with English more than the other departments in this faculty not only for communication but also for teaching.

 

 

  1. Participants

The participants involved were 24 students from the 2013 academic year who were taking Integrated Course class in the 2013 academic year.

 

  1. Instruments

This study used classroom observation, questionnaire and interview as the research instruments. This observation was done to find out the types of communicative activities that the teacher used in this Integrated Course class that is to answer research question number one about kinds of communicative activities used by the teacher in Integrated Course class. It was done in ten meetings and used observation sheet in every meeting.

Then after the observation, the researcher distributed the questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to answer research question number two and three about students’ favorite communicative activity in Integrated Course class and students’ view toward the communicative activities in helping them to improve their speaking ability. The questionnaire consists of two parts. Part one presenting the table illustrating some activities that the teacher used in the IC class with the name of activity. The second part consists of two points, the first point is the rank of communicative activity that the students like, which is it divided the answers into 4 scale range and the second point is about advantage and disadvantage of each communicative activity. In answering the open-ended questions, the students should refer to the table and wrote down the name of activities that help them improve their speaking ability in a ranking order. For the choice of activity, they need to give reasons on how the activity may or may not help them improving or not their speaking ability.

The last one is interview. The interview was used to follow up the participants’ answer in the questionnaire and to get more qualified answer such as the example or illustration on to what extend certain activity help or does not really help them improve to their speaking ability. As for the techniques of interviewing, it is a semi-structured interview done individually using tape recorder for about 5 minutes. The researcher involved six participants, which is a quarter of the total of the participants. Then, the researcher made list of the questions that used for the interview.

 

  1. Data Collection Procedure

The data were collected through the following procedures. Firstly, the researcher attended the Integrated Course Class and observed the teacher’s use of communicative activities and noted down the activities in the observation sheet. After doing the observation and getting the frequency of the communicative activities used, the researcher administrated the questionnaire. Before distributing the questionnaire, piloting was done to make sure that the questionnaire is understandable to do. This was done in respond to McKay’s (2006) idea on the benefit of piloting such as to explore what potential problems may exist, for example clarity of the instruction, items that might be confusing or difficult to understand. The participants for piloting were 10 PGSD students from the 2012 academic year. This number is considered enough for piloting as suggested by McKay, the minimum number of participants for piloting is a quarter of the total sample size. After the piloting process, the researcher distributed the questionnaire to the 24 students in the Integrated Course Class. The time that the researcher gave for the participants to do the questionnaire was 15 minutes. Then after doing the questionnaire, the researcher did the interview to follow up the participants’ answer in questionnaire’s answer.

 

  1. Data Analysis Procedure

After collecting data, the data were analyzed as the following procedures: first the data got from the observation were classified into types of communicative (Information Gap, Discussion, Communicative Game, and Dialogue) activities to know the frequency of teacher’s use of communicative activities. Second, based on the observation result the students were asked to rank the communicative activities that can help them improve their speaking skill in a ranking order. As the analysis of the rank-order items, the researcher divided the answers into 4 scale range. The activity that the participant put as the first rank get score 4, second rank get score 3, third rank get score 2 and the fourth rank get score 1. After that, the researcher counted the score to find the highest number or the most favorite activity by the students. Then, the participants’ answers in open-ended questions were classified in term of advantages and disadvantage each communicative activity. Third, in analyzing the interview result, the researcher transcribed the recording of the interview and analyzed the interviewee’s answer. The interviewee’s answers were analyzed to support the reason or illustration of the advantages or disadvantages of certain common activities to improve students’ speaking ability.

 

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This section discusses the research finding in attempt to answer the research questions. The first one is what kind of communicative activities are used by the teacher in Integrated Course Class? And the second is how do the students view the communicative activities used by the teacher to facilitate their speaking ability?

The answer is presented by showing the frequency of the activities used by the teacher in the Integrated Course Class.

  1. Kind of communicative activities are used by the teacher in Integrated Course Class

Figure 1: Communicative activities used by the teacher in the Integrated Course Class to facilitate students’ speaking ability

The pie chart above illustrates the communicative activities used by the teacher in the Integrated Course Class during the observation. The finding shows that teacher mostly use dialogue (45%), then communicative game (20%), information gap (20%) and discussion (15%).

From the observation, it is found that the classroom activities are done in following ways. Dialogue was simply done in between the teacher and the students, or students with the students. Usually the teacher gave the pattern of the dialogue or the example first, and then the students practiced it in English. As for the topic, it was mainly based on the daily conversation, for example of this activity is preposition of place. The second type is discussion, in this activity the teacher asked the students to discuss about their unforgettable experience. Later on they needed to give comment or they might ask and give feedback on their friend’s story.  Then the third type is information gap. This activity refers to the real life communication to get information through changing from one to some other students in a conversation. For example, asking two students to have a conversation. Student A asked about student B’s uncle and student B gave description about her/his uncle, and on the other way around. The last type is communicative game. This activity is an interesting activity. The teacher gave game to the students like word chain in which the students should add one word to the sentence pattern. For example, “I am going on a picnic, and I am going to bring Apple, Banana, Chocolate, etc…..” (From the word begins with A until Z).

 

 

  1. Students’ perception upon the used communicative activities
  2. Communicative Activities perceived as the most preferred by the students in the Integrated Course Class

This section discusses the second research question about students’ favorite communicative activities used by teacher in the Integrated Course class. Before discussing it, it is better to know what among the four common activities that they like for improving their speaking ability. The pie bellow shows the result of the activity that the students like.

Figure 2: Students perceive on communicative activities in the Integrated Course class

The pie chart above illustrates the students’ favorite communicative activity used by the teacher in the Integrated Course Class to improve their speaking ability. The finding shows that students like communicative game activity (28%), then discussion (27%), dialogue (23%) and information gap (22%).

There are some important points emerged from the two pies above. In the first pie, teacher used 45% of the class activity for dialogue, as a matter of fact there is only 23% percent of students who like it. Then, for communicative games, the teacher used it 20% put of the activity in class. In fact quite many students like it, which is 28%. Similarly, the teacher used 20% of class activity for information gap, and 22% students like it. Then, the teacher uses discussions 15% but quite many of them (27%) like it.

 

  1. The communicative activities perceived as beneficial and less beneficial by the students in the Integrated Course Class in facilitating their speaking ability

The view about communicative activity mainly discuss about the beneficial and less beneficial of communicative activities to facilitate the students speaking ability.

  1. Communicative Activity 1: Communicative Game

Communicative game is perceived by the students to be beneficial in three themes. The first merit is to increase the students’ understanding and vocabulary.

The game is one the important thing to know the meaning of vocabulary because knowing the meaning of vocabulary is the important thing in understanding English. (Student 7)

The game made students to be creative to find the meaning of some vocabulary and got more new vocabulary. (Student 12)

 

Besides that in the interview a student said “In this communicative game, the important thing is know the meaning of the words, by knowing the meaning of words we can answer the game and involve in it also adding our vocabulary” (Student 4)

 

From those statements it is clear that game can help the students find new words in a creative way, by so doing their vocabulary, it will increase and help them to improve their speaking ability because they know more vocabulary to say.

 

The second theme of communication game is fun and makes students more interested and excited in learning. In this theme some students said that:

By the game its helps to speak English because students are happy with the game and encouraged to participate it. (Student 8)

Learning in a fun way, and automatically we hooked to speak English. (Student 16)

The teaching learning process feels different and it makes us easier and excited to learn English. (Student 18)

 

Those statements shows games promote fun and when students learn in fun way, they experience different atmosphere of learning. Therefore they will feel excited and it helps them to learn or improve their speaking ability in an easier way.

 

The third beneficial for the students of communicative game is easier to understand the material, in this theme some students said that by the game they will:

Makes us understand the alphabet easily, and learn to complete the sentence into a good sentence. (Student 6)

Easier in understanding and memorizing the material that taught by the teacher. (Student 15)

Makes us trying to think and understand the material. (Student 20)

 

Those statements demonstrate that communicative games are effective for helping the students internalize the input in an easier way such as in memorizing and understanding the material.

 

As the students perceive of communication game beneficially, the students can add their vocabulary in creative way and they will improve their vocabulary. Then the students also learn in fun way and they are happy so they can easily to understand the material. By those can be seen that this activity helps the students to improve their speaking ability in fun way. So that, this advantage is appropriate with the theory revealed by Diana (2010), which is communicative game, is fun activity.

 

Apart from the beneficial, the students also view communicative game activity is less beneficially, although there are only a few of students said so. The less beneficial of this activity are divided into three themes. The first one is the imbalance of students’ involvement. How it happens can be seen below:

Only some students get involve actively in this game. (Student 14)

 

“…, the class is divided into groups, so take for example in one group there are some active students and some passive students. Then, sometimes some passive students are undercover by the active students. In this game only the active students who involve.”(Student 23)

 

Those two statements refer that in this communicative game activity, only some students get involve actively in this activity. The passive students were just silent and undercover by the active students. For those who undercover by the active students will have difficulty to improve their speaking ability since they just undercover by the active students.

 

The second weakness of is this game is time consuming.

…, but this game needs a long time to do. (Student 17)

 

Communicative game, in fact takes a long time to do. Like there is need long time to explain how the game is and sometimes there some students did mistakes and that makes this activity takes a long time.

 

The third less beneficial is the students can not get into the material deeply.

This game is doing in a big group and together, so it is not making the students do the game in the detail way, just answer it and win the game. (Student 5)

 

The student feels that the communicative game does not help him know the material in detailed way, because commonly, students need to complete answering the game and become the winner.

 

The main point in this less beneficial of this communicative activity are just some active students who involve in this activity, takes a long time (time consuming) and this activity does not make the students to know the material in a detail way. As seen in the following excerpts said by Diana (2010), that this activity takes a long time to do.

 

  1. Communicative Activity 2: Discussion

In the discussion activity there are 27% of the students-participants who chose this activity. Their views beneficially on discussion are categorized into two themes. The first theme is to know the weakness of their performance.

Students will get feedback from their friends which is can help them to know which one is right and wrong and can learn from their mistakes. (Student 1)

Students can know the weakness of their assignment and get a new knowledge. (Student 13)

 

Therefore those statements are strengthened by this student’s statement interview

“Take for example, we have to make a journal or story by ourselves of course we have to explore it by ourselves, but if we do it together with our friends we can share our journal or story. So that we can know the weakness of ours, then we will have a progress. And while we are sharing it, it’s also improving our speaking ability because in class we have to share it in English. But because we share with friends, so we can correct our weakness orally.”(Student 12)

 

From the illustration above, it is obvious that through discussion, students will feel free to interact with their friends and discuss or correcting one another performance or assignment and they will get feedback each other. When they get feedback from each other they will know their weakness and they can correct and learn to be better to improve their speaking ability.

 

Then the second merit is to add vocabulary. In this theme, students said that discussion:

Can add the vocabulary knowledge together with friends. (Student 3)

We can add our vocabulary and also we can share. (Student 19)

 

Those statements above refers that discussion adds students’ vocabulary. When the students doing the discussion in English automatically they can learn new vocabulary from friends, similarity if they did not know the meaning of some words they will ask their friend so that will add their vocabulary too.

 

In this students’ view beneficial of discussion, they can know their weakness in making story or journal by sharing with their friends. They also feel more comfortable if they share with their friends and while they are sharing they can add their vocabulary too. Then they will improve their speaking ability in a comfort way.

 

Besides students’ view toward the beneficial of discussion, students’ view toward some less beneficial of discussion is also necessary to consider, there are views that can be drawn from the participants’ answer in questionnaire. Below is the first merit, which is talked out of topic.

Some students more talk about their own personal story rather than the assignment

Not improve the speaking ability. (Student 9)

Some students are talking out of topic, not about friends’ story or journal. (Student 15)

It is not effective enough because usually some students speak in other language, not English. (Student 16)

 

In those experiences, the can be unhelpful because the students are talking out their personal business more than the topic in Bahasa Indonesia or Bahasa Jawa. In this way they feel discussion do not really help improve their speaking ability.

 

The second weakness of discussion is focus to complete the task only. The student’s statement in this theme is:

“In the discussion, we want to get A for example, and then we just focus on the target A only. In the other hand to get the target there are some process, like how we use the proper tenses, the diction, the appropriate vocabulary and so on. Then, because we just focus on that target sometimes we forgot that process and that’s why this activity is not improving speaking ability. Besides that some students are using Bahasa Indonesia because they have difficulties in expressing their idea or forgot the meaning of some words in English” (Student 2)

 

By that experience, student feels that in the discussion not really help him to improve his speaking ability because in discussion they just focus to complete the task. Then, to complete it sometimes they speak in Bahasa Indonesia to get easier to express their idea or because they do not know some words in English.

 

The third short coming is boring. Below is a statement from a student:

This activity makes me bored and this activity also takes long useless time. (Student 21)

 

Even there is only a student who gave statement like this, that is shows that in discussion some students can get bored since the activity takes a long time, and maybe because some of them are talking more about their personal business more than the topic.

 

In this part can be seen that there are some students’ perceived that discussion has less beneficial. When doing this activity some students are talked out of topic, and some students will get bored of that. In the other hand, in the discussion some students just focus on the target and they forgot with the process, and maybe they talked in other language like Javanese or Bahasa Indonesia so that this activity not improves their speaking ability.

 

  1. Communicative Activity 3: Dialogue

Students’ view on the efficacy of dialogue are categorizes into three themes. The first one is to give more practice to speak English. In this first theme, there are some students’ statements, they are:

We have to speak in English correctly and that will make us to be usual to speak in English. (Student 15)

We can practice to speak English directly. (Student 16)

…. help us to practice speaking English fluently. (Student 19)

 

Through dialogue, students have to speak in English and they have to pronounce the word correctly. That will make the students get used to speak in English and pronounce English words correctly. As a result, they are becoming more fluent and improved.

Then, the second strength of dialogue is adding vocabulary.

It is can add our vocabulary ….. (Student 17)

It is can add our vocabulary … (Student 19)

We can help each other by translating new words and that will add our vocabulary too. (Student 24)

 

Through dialogue some students experience their vocabulary get improved because they practice to pronounce again and again. In the dialogue they also can help each other to find new words.

 

The third theme is can add our knowledge. Some students said in this theme that:

By this activity we can add our knowledge… (Student 17)

 

Then, there is student’s statement of this advantage of dialogue in the interview, like this:

The knowledge here that I mean is, take for example in this activity the example of the activity is preposition of place. So we can know more about preposition of place, how to show something like the book is under the table, we know more about in, on, at, under, etc.. Besides that, we also can learn how to pronounce words well while practicing.”(Student 17)

 

In this point, dialogue can help students get new knowledge of language items. For example, they get to know about how to use preposition of place from such a real life communication.

 

In term of the beneficial that the dialogue revealed, the result show participants can improve their speaking ability. The benefit that they get by dialogue are help them to practice speak English, add their vocabulary and help them to pronounce well.

 

The dialogue activity is perceived by the students to be less beneficial in three themes. The first themes is the use of dialect in speaking

We have to understand what our friends’ said because some of them still using their dialect, that somehow makes me confuse to understand it (student 21)

 

In this part, a student feels that some their friends’ dialect makes her difficult to understand what her friends’ said. In the other hand, during the observation class the observer also mentioned that when the students were practicing dialogue there were some local dialect did by the students, like Javanese dialogue and the partner looked like little bit confused to understand about what their friends’ said.

 

The second short coming is ineffective. Some students feel that dialogue is not enough effective for them to improve their speaking ability.

This activity is helping me to understand and memorize some words but it is not enough effective because it is just repeat the same pattern of dialogue. (Student 2)

 

That statement is strengthening by this statement in the interview:

“In the dialogue with friends, usually the lecture already gave the example or pattern and we just repeat the same questions, only the answer that a little bit different. We just change a little bit the answer and that makes students not too interested in because we just repeat the same things (the questions or the pattern).” (Student 2)

 

The students feel that in the dialogue they just repeat the same questions or dialogue in the same pattern, they just need to change the answer and maybe the subject of the questions little bit. By that the students think that this activity is not effective enough.

 

The third weakness is the simple answer.

Some friends just answer the question in a simple way, and that just use simple vocabulary. (Student 14)

 

This weakness is related to the second one. As stated in the second theme, the students just repeat the same pattern and change the answer a little bit. This influences the students to give simple answer and even some of students just use simple vocabulary. Therefore that will not help students to improve their speaking ability.

 

As the students’ perceive on dialogue activity less beneficially, can be seen that in dialogue some students still using their own dialect in speaking English and that makes other a little bit difficult to understand the meaning of what they are speaking about. Then this activity is ineffective because just repeats the same questions and the answer that the students’ give just simple. Those statements show that dialogue is not helping them to improve their speaking ability.

 

 

  1. Communicative Activity 4: Information Gap

The Information Gap is perceived by the students to be beneficial in three themes. The first theme is to make students to get used to speak in English.

Help us to learn speak English with other and practice our language aspect (Student 2)

In this activity we have to speak English directly for example, to give information or ask some information. So that will help us to practice our speaking in English and that will make us be usual to speak in English. (Student 7)

 

From those statements, students can improve their speaking ability through this activity. Since they have to speak in English directly, for example to give or ask information to other so that they will set used to speak in English. That will improve their speaking ability.

 

The second merit in this activity which is the same as the benefit of communication game, discussion and dialogue, that is to add students’ vocabulary.

We should be ready with our vocabulary knowledge, so that in giving information we will not find difficulties to choose the appropriate word. (Student 1)

Friends can help us to find and translate a new word. (Student 10)

Help us in knowing the vocabulary ….. (Student 12)

 

In the interview, student said:

“In this questionnaire the example of this activity is describing people. Then when we describe people we will imagine what that people looks like and try to use appropriate words to describe it. In describing people we will understand some new words and we can find new words that can improve our speaking ability.”(Student 2)

 

By doing the information gap activity students have to be ready with their vocabulary knowledge because in this activity students should give the information to their friends and to give clear explanation they have to know the meaning of words so that they can give clear explanation. Besides that, through such a pair work, students can help each other to find the meaning of some vocabulary.

 

The third strength is to help students give clear explanation.

It is easier to give the explanation orally …. (Student 9)

This activity helps us to give clear explanation, for example give clear direction in English. (Student 19)

 

In those statements students feel easier to give explanation or information to their friends. In the other hand, the language that students used in this activity is like in the daily conversation, so that they can give information or speak easier.

 

The students’ perceive on the beneficial of information gap here shows that this activity improves their speaking ability by helping them to practice and make them to be used to speak in English. This activity also helps them to add their vocabulary and help them to give a clear explanation to their friends in English.

 

After knowing the students’ perceive on the beneficial of information gap, let us examine their view on less beneficial of information gap. It is potential to make students get bored.

Get bored. (Student 21)

 

This statement strengthening with this interview statement:

“In this activity used to be like that, for example just describe people and giving direction only. That makes me bored, because the activity just simple and not improve our knowledge” (Student 21)

 

In this activity some students get bored because the activity just describes people and giving direction. They want more interesting activity and other, or maybe by those activities they already knew it.

 

The main point of this weakness on information gap activity is students get bored. The potential problem that makes them bored is the simple activity that the teacher gives to them, and implicitly they want more challenging activity or topic. Therefore, information gap activity is not helping them to improve their speaking ability.

 

CONCLUSION AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATION

From the research finding it is clear that the teacher used four commonly communicative activities in class; they are dialogue, communicative game, information gap and discussion. In a practice the teacher used 45% of the class activity for dialogue, as a matter of fact there is only 23% percent of students who like it. Then, for communicative games, the teacher used it 20% put of the activity in class. In fact quite many students like it, which is 28%. Similarity, the teacher used 20% of class activity for information gap, therefore 22% students like it. Then, the teacher uses discussions 15% but quite many of them (27%) like it.

From the data can be concluding that those activities that the teacher used in class are helping them in improving their speaking ability, such as to add their vocabulary and get used to speak English. In the other hand, there are some aspects that make the students feel that those activities are not helping them to improve their speaking ability, which is they get bored by some activities such as information gap and discussion activity, and there is ineffectiveness in the dialogue activity and time consuming in the communicative game activity.

In the other hand, if the teacher wants to use communicative game in class it is better because in the study found that using games the students can add their vocabulary in creative way, they learn in fun way and they will be happy, but this activity need a long time (time consuming). Then, the good thing if the teacher uses discussion in class, teacher can make the students more comfortable because they will be sharing with their friends so they can be confidence but, if the teacher does not controlled it, the students can talk out of topic. They can talk more about their personal story and they might be speaking in Bahasa Indonesia or Javanese. For dialogue activity, teacher good use it because this activity help students to practice speak English also help them to add vocabulary, but this activity is ineffective because just repeat the same pattern. The last one, the teacher good to use information gap in, because it is help students to be used to speak English but by this activity can make the students feel bored.

In this study, there are some limitations, like as the minimum of the participants, the class that to be observed, which is the class is Integrated Course class not speaking class and the aim of the teacher in the course is not focus on the speaking only, but also in reading, grammar and listening. Then, as for the further studies, it can be done to find out the teacher’s view on communicative activities in facilitate students’ speaking ability. For example, find out what activity that help students to improve their speaking ability easily and what activity that can make the students to be more enjoy and fun in learning speaking English. It can be used at least in the speaking course class.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would express my thankfulness to those who have become part of finishing my study and my thesis. Firstly, I want to thank to Heavenly Father for always blessing and giving me strength to finish my study. My appreciation also to my supervisor  Ibu Debora Tri Ragawanti, M.A-ELT who has kindly given me guidance to do my thesis, and also my examiner, Ibu Athriana Santye Pattiwael, M.Hum. who has also spared her precious time to read and examine my thesis. Then thanks to my student advisor Bapak Gusti Astika and other English Department lectures who have been kindly sharing their knowledge during my study in this faculty. Special thanks to my family, my parents Andreas Suwardi,  S.Pd. and Andayani Margareta, S.Pd. who always supporting and giving me advices also inspiring me, my brother Cahyo who has helped me a lot to finish my study, my sister Mba Danti who had help me to get the data for my thesis. Thanks to International Program of Primary Teacher Education 2013 academic year and Ms. Janelle, who has kindly helping me to get the data for my thesis. Then, big thanks to my partner  in crime, Ami who has to be together during our study. Then my friends Dicta, Bunga and Ayu, and Tenners Futsal (Ami, Ima, Lui, So’e, Andrew and Godlass) who has spent time to have fun together, supporting each other and being part of my family. Then, special thank for my beloved, Wahyu Bangkit for always supporting me during my study and finishing my thesis. Special regards also for all Tenners (2010) family without exceptance. Thank You.

Brigitta Putri Atika Tyagita

 

REFERENCES

 

Papa, Nicole. (2013). How Oral Communication Can be Used in Business.Retrieved January 11th 2014, from: http://www.ehow.co.uk/about_6682428_oral-communication-can-used-business.html

TESOL Quarterly 32 (4), 677-703. Doughty and Long (2003). Principles of Communicative Language Teaching and Task-Based Instruction. Retrieved November 9th, 2013, from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/samplechapter/0131579061.pdf

McClintock, Kathryn. (2011). Korean University Students’ Perceptions of Communicative Language Teaching.

Davies, Paul and Pearse, Eric.(2000).Success in English Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thornbury, Scott. (2005).How to Teach Speaking.England: Pearson Education Limited

Communicative Activities.Sidney Region ESL Resoures. [adapted from the NSW DET ESL orientation Handbook Multicultural Program Unit.Activities created by K-6 multicultural consultant Sidney Region]. Retrieved November 8th, 2013 from: http://www.sydneyr.det.nsw.edu.au/Equity/documents/ESLEd/ExplainingCommunicativeActivities.pdf

Richard. Jack C. (2006).Communicative Language Today.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Efrizal, Dedi. (2012). Improving Students’ Speaking through Communicative Language Teaching Method at Mts Ja-alhaq, Sentot Ali Basa Islamic Boarding School of Bengkulu, Indonesia. Retrieved November 8th, 2013 from: http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_20_Special_Issue_October_2012/12.pdf

Harmer, Jeremy. (2001).The Practice of English Language Teaching (3rd ed.). England: www.longman.com

Harmer, Jeremy. (2001).The Practice of English Language Teaching (4th ed.). England: www.longman.com

Nunan, David (Ed.) (2003).Practical English Language Teaching (1st ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education.

Brennan, Susan E. (2010).Conversation and Dialogue. To appear in H. Pashler (Ed.), Ensiclopedia of the Mind.Stony Brook University-SAGE Publications.

Shermila, Joycilin A. (2013). Associate Professor of English Annammal College of Education for Women Thoothukudi. Teaching to Speak-Strategies to Enhance The Spoken English of Prospective Teacher.(Vols.3). Golden Research Thought.

Teaching Learning Strategies (pp. 131-151).FLL Handbook [Compiled by Nugrahenny T.Zacharias, MA-ELT]. Salatiga: English Department FLL SWCU

Richard A. Krueger & Mary Anne Casey (2000).Focus Groups. A Practical Guide for Applied Research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks

McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching Second Language Classroom. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Fern, Edward F. (2001).Advanced Focus Group Research Paperback (1st ed.). London: Sage

Taylor, J. and Walford, R. (1972). Learning and the Simulation Game. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Kumar, Mohan. (2011). How to use Role-Play in Teaching and Training. Retrieved November 8th, 2013 from: http://docmo.hubpages.com/hub/How-to-use-Role-Play-in-Teaching-and-Training

Broward County Public Schools, Jigsaw. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from: http://www.broward.k12.fl.us/ci/strategies_and_such/strategies/jigsaw.html

Almaliani, Erma (2011). By Using Information-Gap Activity (A Classroom Action Research At The Second Grade SMP IT Annajiah Cibinong). Retrieved November 10, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CFgQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Frepository.uinjkt.ac.id%2Fdspace%2Fbitstream%2F123456789%2F2680%2F1%2FERMA%2520AMALIANIFITK.pdf&ei=bdQbUjpBYetrAeF34DQBg&usg=AFQjCNEuFSXvRJUQAPENA6mzZv6-qCa6zA&sig2=39oAnjAdNZhFVsCLWrg-Ow&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bmk

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Top of Form

 

APPENDIX

Kepada para peserta,

Saya adalah mahasiswa Fakultas Bahasa dan Sastra UKSW yang sedang melakukan penelitian untuk skripsi saya mengenai kegiatan komunikatif yang diterapkan oleh dosen untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara bahasa Inggris. Tujuan dari kuisioner ini untuk mengetahui pendapat mahasiswa/i terhadap kegiatan komunikatif yang dilakukan oleh dosen. Jawaban dalam kuisioner ini tidak akan mempengaruhi nilai Anda, trimakasih.

 

 

  1. Kegiatan berikut diterapkan oleh dosen selama satu semester di kelas Integrated Course, berikut beberapa kegiatan dari dosen yang diperoleh selama observasi:
No. Jenis Kegiatan Contoh kegiatan Keterangan
1. Diskusi Diskusi kerangka cerita Siswa menceritakan kepada temannya, mengenai kerangka cerita dalam karangan siswa
Diskusi cerita Siswa menceritakan isi cerita mereka kepada teman sebelahnya, kemudian mendapatkan masukan baik pertanyaan maupun saran
2. Dialog Preposisi tempat Siswa melakukan percakapan tentang letak beberapa hal yang ada pada gambar menggunakan preposisi tempat “in, on, next to..”
3. Permainan Komunikatif Kata berantai Para siswa harus menyelesaikan kalimat berdasarkan alphabet dalam pola “I’m going on a picnic and I’m going to bring A (benda/binatang)…sampai Z”
Menebak apa yang dilakukan teman Beberapa siswa maju didepan kelas satu per satu, dan dosen sudah menyiapkan beberapa kertas yang telah tertulis beberapa kegiatan / aktivitas. Kemudian siswa yang lain harus menebak apa yang teman mereka lakukan dengan menanyakan beberapa pertanyaan.
4. Informasi Gap Memberikan petunjuk arah Siswa melakukan percakapan dengan temannya tentang meminta dan memberikan petunjuk arah
Memberikan diskripsi Siswa melakukan percakapan dengan temannya, salah satu bertanya menganai seseorang dan kemudian temannya menggambarkan/mendiskripsikan seseorang tersebut.

 

  1. Dari keempat jenis kegiatan tersebut (diskusi, dialog, permainan komunikatif, dan informasi gap), tolong urutkan kegiatan yang paling membantu Anda dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara bahasa Inggris Anda sampai yang menurut Anda kurang membantu. Tolong berikan alasan kenapa kegiatan tersebut dapat membantu dan atau kurang membantu Anda dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris Anda.

 

No. Jenis kegiatan

  1. ____________

Alasan :

 

 

  1. ____________

Alasan :

 

 

  1. ____________

Alasan :

 

 

  1. ____________

Alasan :

 

 

  1. Informasi Demografi

Umur                     :

Jenis kelamin         : Pria / Wanita (lingkari salah satu)

 

  1. Consent Form

Jika ada ketidak jelasan mengenai jawaban diatas, dapatkah saya menghubungi Anda untuk klarifikasi/wawancara?

Ya / Tidak (Lingkari salah satu)

Jika Anda memilih “YA”, silahkan isi data berikut :

Nama                     :

Nomor telepon      :

E-mai                     :

Terima kasih J